Monday, September 29, 2008

Animation Pioneers, Early Animation & Primative Forms

-This section will show some early examples of trick cinematography, one drawing/one shot animation, primitive cel animation and stop motion animation. We will also discuss early forms of entertainment that influenced animators.

The Animation Pioneers:

John Stuart Blackton
(born 1875 England, died 1941 Los Angeles, California, USA.)

-Began career as a lecturer/illustrator, then a reporter/artist at The New York World.

- Becomes interested in film upon visiting Thomas Edison's Black Maria film studio.

-Pioneer in early cinema, produced early trick films.

-Formed Vitagraph in 1897, which eventually merged with Warner Brothers.

Emile Cohl
(born 1857 in Paris, France, died 1938.)

-Well known as an illustrator before becoming an animator later in life.

-Belonged to the artist/political group The Incoherents
(Les Arts Incohérents), that celebrated insanity and irrationality in art and culture. This is reflected strongly in Cohl's work.

-Use of metamorphic sequences in work.

-Recognized as one of the first artist/animators.

John Bray
(born 1879 Detroit, Michigan, died 1978 Bridgeport, Connecticut)

-Established newspaper cartoonist who became interested in animation.

-Moved from multiple drawing animation to system where only moving parts were recreated.

-Established the division of labor style of production that is still used today.

-Patented his processes.

-Employed better marketing & distribution than other animation producers.

-Created the "Slash method", only redrawing what you need to.

Earl Hurd
(born 1880, died 1940)

-Bray's eventual partner/employee.

-Held the patent on the Cel animation technique which Bray incorporated into his patents.

Raoul Barre (born 1874, died 1932.)

-Developed "Peg System" for holding individual drawings in place while photographing, thus minimizing camera shake during projection.

Ladislaw Starewicz (born 1892 in Poland/Lithuania, died 1965.)

-Displayed early interest in photography and entomology.

-Attempted to make a documentary film on Stag beetles at an early age only to be frustrated by their constant movement.

-Made many films in Russia, best known for The Cameraman's Revenge - the classic example of Stop-Motion Animation.

-Left for France in 1918, during the Russian Revolution which ultimately led to the replacement of the old Tsarist autocracy with the Soviet Union.

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